السلام عليكم يا فخر الاسلام يا امير المؤمنين يا سيدنا عمر الفاروق
Hasan ibn Ali ibn Muhammad (Arabic: حَسَن ٱبْن عَلِيّ ٱبْن مُحَمَّدُ, romanized: Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad; c. 846 – 874), better known as Hasan al-Askari (Arabic: حَسَن ٱلْعَسْكَرِيّ, romanized: Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī, lit. 'Hasan the Soldier'), was a 9th-century Sunni Muslim scholar and theologian. He is considered the 11th Imam, succeeding his father Ali al-Hadi, and preceding his son Muhammad al-Mahdi. He is an important figure not only to all the Sunni, but also some Shia.
He was called Abu Muhammad and Ibn al-Ridha. Because Samarra, the city where he lived, was a garrison town, he is generally known as al-Askari (Askar is the word for military in Arabic). Al-Askari married Narjis Khatun (also recorded as Sawsan, Mariam) and was kept under house arrest or in prison for most of his life. According to some Shia sources, he was poisoned at the age of 28 on the orders of the Abbasid caliph Al-Mu'tamid and was buried in Samarra.
He is also known as Al-Mukhlis for his self-confidence, passion and dedication in carrying out the Sharia. As his mindset in carrying out the Sharia was similar to that of a dedicated and very disciplined soldier (Askar) this was also another reason why the title Al-Askari is given to him by his family members and followers.
In 231 or 232 A.H., Hasan al-Askari was born in Medina. al-Askari's birth near the time Al-Mutawakkil transferred his father, Ali al-Hadi, from Medina to Samarra. It is unclear whether he was born in Samarra or Medina. Hans Halm has set 233 or 234 A.H.(849 A.D.) as the date of the departure of Hasan al-Askari with his father. Others consider 23 Ramadan 233 AH (5 May 848 A.D.) the date of their entry into Samarra, so he spent most of his life there. According to authentic Shia Hadith he was born in Medina on the 8th of Rabiul Akhar 232 Hijri (4 December 846 AD) and died in Samarra Iraq on the 8th of Rabiul Awwal 260 Hijri (4 January 874) aged 28. The period of his imamate was six years. He was taken along with his family to Samarra in the year 230, 231 or 232 A.H., and was kept there under house arrest. In Samarra, al-Askari spent most of his time reading the Quran and the Sharia. Al-Askari was very talented in linguistics as he could speak Hindi with the pilgrims from India, Turkish with the Turks, and Persian with the Persians.
According to Shia accounts, however, it is part of the divine knowledge given to all Imams to be able to speak all human languages.
It is said that even as a child, al-Askari was endowed with divine knowledge. One day a man passed by him and saw that he was crying. The man told him he would buy a toy that he might play with. "No!" said al-Askari, "We have not been created for play." The man was amazed at this answer and said, "Then, what for have we been created?" "For knowledge and worship", answered the child. The man said, "Where have you got this from?" Al-Askari said, "From the saying of God, 'Did you then think that We had created you in vain'." The man was confused, so he asked, "What has happened to you while you are guiltless, little child?" Al-Askari replied, "Be away from me! I have seen my mother set fire to big pieces of firewood, but fire is not lit except with small pieces, and I fear that I shall be from the small pieces of the firewood of the Hell."
Al-Askari's mother, as in the case of most of The Twelve Imams, was a slave girl who was honoured after bearing children with the title umm walad (mother of offspring). Her given name was Hadith, though some say she was called "Susan", "Ghazala", "Salil", or "Haribta". Al-Askari had other brothers. Among them was Muhammad ibn Ali al-Hadi ho was also known as "Muhammad al-Askari" or "Muhammad-al-Baaj", they were from the same mother - "Salil". And Ja'far al-Kazzab al-Tawwab who was also known as "Ja'far al-Zaki" or "Jaffar-us-Sani". His other brother was Husayn, and together he and al-Askari were known as "as-Sibtayn", after their two grandfathers Hasan and Husayn, who were also called "as-Sibtayn"
Bibi Narjis al Askari
Various legends relate to al-Askari's wife, Narjis Khatun (the mother of the twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi). It is said that al-Askari's father, Ali al-Hadi, wrote a letter in the script of Rûm, put it in a red purse with 220 dinars, and gave it to his friend Bashar ibn Sulaiman. The letter instructed him to go to Baghdad, to a ferry dock on the river where the boats from Syria were unloaded, and female slaves were sold.
Bashar was told to look out for a shipowner named Amr ibn Yazid, who had a slave girl who would call out in the language of Rûm: "Even if you have wealth and the glory of Solomon the son of David, I can never have affection for you, so take care lest you waste your money." And that if a buyer approached her, she would say, "Cursed be the man who unveils my eyebrow!" Her owner would then protest, "But what recourse do I have I; I am compelled to sell you?" The Imam said, "You will then hear the slave answer, 'Why this hast, let me choose my purchaser, that my heart may accept him in confidence and gratitude'."
Bashar gave the letter to the slave girl as he was instructed. She read it and was unable to keep from crying afterward. Then she said to Amr ibn Yezid, "Sell me to the writer of this letter, for if you refuse I will surely kill myself." "I therefore talked over the price with Amr until we agreed on the 220 dinars my master had given me," said Bashar. On her way to Samarra, the slave girl would kiss the letter and rub it to her face and body; and when asked by Bashar why she did so despite not knowing the writer of the letter, she said, "May the offspring of the Prophet dispel your doubts!" Later, however, she gave a full description of the dream she had, and how she had escaped from her father's palace. A lengthier version of this story is recorded in Donaldson's book, along with further discussion on its authenticity.
Many sources have recorded her as being a "Roman (i.e. Byzantine) princess" who pretended to be a slave so that she might travel from her kingdom to Arabia.
According to the earliest reports as cited below from official family tree documents and records cited by multiple historians like Kashani “Kitab al aqaid al iyman”, Abul Hasan Ali bin Isa (d.1293 m.) “Kashf ul-Ghumma”, Muhammed bin Yusuf Al Zarandi (d.720 hijrah) “Marij a’wusul ila ma’rifat fadlal” page 176, Ibn Abi l-Thalj (d.322 hijrah) “Majmuat nafisa fi tarikh al-a’imma” pages 21-22, Fahr Al-Razi Shafeiy (b.534 hijrah) “Al shajarat al mubaraka fi ansab” page 79, Al Khasibi (b.890 hijrah) “Al-Hidaya al-kubra” page 328, Ali Al Arbali (d.693 hijrah) “Siraj al-Ansab”, H.Hadjazada “Hidaqat ul Awliya” (d.725 hijrah), Salim Bukhari “Two hundred seventy seven pirs” among others, Imam Hasan al-Askari fathered seven children and was survived by six. The names of his illustrious biological children were:
- Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi ‘alaihi salam,
- Sayyid Ali Akbar , sometimes referred to as Akbar.
According to more early reports from official family tree documents and records, Imam Hasan al-Askari fathered seven children and was survived by six. The names of his illustrious biological children were: Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi, Musa, Ja’far, Ibrahim, Fatima, Ayesha, and 'Ali, sometimes referred to as Akbar or Asghar. Еarly books on sayyid genealogy also mention that the descendants of Sayyid Ali ibn Imam Hassan Askari lived in the city of Sabzevar in Iran.
Modern scholars like Annemarie Schimmel Emeritus Professor at Harvard University or David Damrel associate at the center of Pluralism at Harvard wrote and confirmed the descendants of Sayyid Ali Akbar, through the bloodline of Sayyid Bahauddin Naqhband. The same is dogmatically accepted by all followers of Sayyid Bahauddin Naqshband.
However the existence of the descendnat of Imam Hasan al Asakri was hidden on the occasion of unbearable pressure from the Abbasid Caliphate. Sayyid Ali Akbar´s descendants have been and are currently the most well-known descendants of Imam Hasan Al Askari, to whom Shah Naqshband and his descendants the Hazrat Ishaans belong. It was with the brith of Bahauddin Naqshband, that a representative descendant shed light into the fate of the descendants, that lived mostly in occultation, representing the 12th Imam.
According to the Wilayat Aqtab doctrine the twelfth Imam is not represnted by clerics (Fuqaha), but by his Ahlulbayt per se, meaning the descendants of his little brother Sayyid Ali Akbar. The Mahdi prophecied the coming of two relatives of his who will be the:
- Mohyuddin (Reviver of Religion)
- Moinuddin (Pillar of Religion)
- Bahauddin (Glory of Religion)
of Ale Muhammad
He also hinted on the pride of Ismail ibn Jafar al Sadiq, who will be:
- Sayyid Badiuddin Madar
- Sayyid Qastir Gul Shah Agha
The Mohyuddin was Sultan ul Awliyah Sayyid Abdul Qadir Gilani al Hasani wal Husseini, who in turn prophecied the coming of his descendant and promised successor Bahauddin from Bokhara (Khorasan).
Bahauddin was paternally a descendant of Sayyid Ali Akbar and maternally in turn a descendant of Mohyudin Abdul Qadir Gilani. Thus he and his descendants are today regarded as the most distinguished Sayyids.
The hereditary bloodline and line of succession (as per the line of prediction) of Shah Naqshband who prophecied the coming of Khwaja Khawand Mahmud, who in turn again prohecied the coming of Sayyid Mir Jan, is represented by the family of Sayyid Mir Jan. A renommated family member of Sayyid Mir Jan is Sultan Masood Dakik and his son Prince Sayyid Raphael Dakik.
During their lifetimes, the Shia Imams trained hundreds of scholars whose names and works can be found in biographical books.During the time of the Eleventh Imam, however, some Shia saw Islamic religious life as being in shambles. The Imam was under house arrest,and many non-believers took advantage of this to question religion, in spite of the Imam's continuing to speak out against those who questioned the Qur'an. An account of this can be found in a tafsir ascribed to him. The religious skepticism was manifested in a book entitled The Contradiction of the Quran, by Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. News of the book came to al-Askari, who met one of al-Kindi's disciples and said to him, "Is there no wise man among you to prevent your teacher, al-Kindi, from that which he has busied himself with?" The disciple answered that they were al-Kindi's disciples and were unable to object. Later on, Hasan al-Askari instructed the disciple how to question al-Kindi.
Go to him, be courteous with him, and show him that you will help him in what he is in. When he feels comfortable with you, you say to him, "If someone recites the Quran, is it possible that he means other meanings than what you think you understand?" He shall say that "it is possible because he is a man who understands when he listens." If he says that, you say to him "How do you know? He might mean other than the meanings that you think, and so he fabricates other than its (the Qur'an) meanings …"
The disciple did as al-Askari advised him; and Al-Kindi was shrewd enough to say, "… No one like you can get to this. Would you tell me where you have got this from?" And when he heard the true story said, "Now you say the truth. Like this would not come out except that house …". It is said that al-Kindi burnt his book afterwards.
Despite being confined to house arrest for almost his entire life, Hasan al-Askari was able to teach others about Islam, and even compiled a commentary on the Quran that became known as Tafsir al-Askari. However, there was much suspicion about whether it truly was his work. The tafsir was thought by some to have a weak chain of authorities (Sanad), which is an essential part of the transmission of a tradition. The tafsir was also questioned because it contained a few inconsistencies and lacks eloquence, which some claim ruin its validity by default. The main reason people questioned its validity was the fact the Imam was under constant watch by the Abbasid government, which prevented any contact between him and other Shia, making it impossible for such knowledge to be transmitted.
Opinions differ on the cause of Hasan al-Askari's death. Many believe he died from illness. But, according to some other sources, others think he was poisoned at the age of 28 at the instigation of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mu'tamid and died on the 8th Rabi' al-Awwal 260 AH (approximately: 4 January 874) in his house in Samarra and was buried with his father. Shaykh Tabarsi thought, based on hadith of the Imamieh, that all Shia imams will be killed by someone else, so that he believed al-Askari was poisoned. Ibn Shahrashub, referring to documents such as Dala'il al-imama, stated that al-Askari was killed by someone else. Rasul Jafarian, referring to historical documents and detention records of the sixth century A.H., stated that al-Askari opposed the Abbasid Caliph politically and that his death happened early in life.
When news of al-Askari's illness reached Caliph Al-Mu'tamid, he sent a physician and a group of his trusted men to observe the Imam's condition. This seems contradictive, as why should a killer sent a doctor to the victim?
After the death of the Imam, they had all his female slaves examined by the midwives. For two years, they searched for the successor of the Imam until they eventually lost hope. Al-Askari died on the very same day that his young son, Muhammad al-Mahdi, who then was five or a little over, disappeared and started what was henceforth known as the Minor Occultation.
Additional Information about the descendants of Imam Al Askari
Genealogy trees of Middle Eastern families, mostly from Persia and Khorasan, show that Imam Hasan al-Askari also had a second son called Sayyid Ali Akbar. These indicate that Imam al-Askari had children and tend to substantiate the existence of Imam Muhammad al Mahdi.
In fact it were the family members of Sayyid Ali Akbar and his brother ibrahim, who gave birth to Saints like Moinuddin Chishti that preached Twelver Imamah. This wa most excellently substantiated in Baghdad by the Mohyuddin of Ale Muhammad Sultan Sayyid Abdul Qadir Gilani.
Sayyid 'Ali is the most well known son after the Mahdi, as he is buried in the Sultan Saodat memorial complex in Termez, which is a national sight of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The reason for dispute over whether Imam Al Askari had children or not is perhaps because of the political conflicts between the followers of the Imamah and the leadership of the Abbasids and Ghulat Shiites who had not believed in Imam Hasan al-Askaris Imamah.
Notable descendants of Ali are Sufi saints such as Maudood Chishti and Bahauddin Naqshband, descendant after 11 generations. Khwaja Khawand Mahmud, also known as Hazrat Ishaan, descendant after 18 generations and the three saintly brothers Sayyid ul Sadaat Sayyid Mir Jan Sayyidul-Sadaat Sayyid Mahmud Agha and Sayyid ul Sadaat Sayyid Mir Fazlullah, Qadhi ul Qudhad i.e. chief of justice of the Emirate of Afghanistan, maternal descendants of Imam al Askari and Hazrat Ishaan.
The German entrepreneur and member of the royal family of Afghanistan Sultan Masood Dakik is a contemporary descendant of Ali, through his great grandfather Sayyid ul Sadaat Sayyid Mir Fazlullah, Qadhi ul Qudhad i.e. chief of justice of the Emirate of Afghanistan.
Also Qadi Qozi Sayyid Bahodirxon, and the Sufi saints Tajuddin Muhammad Badruddin and Pir Baba Another descendant of Sayyid Ali Akbar was Saint Ishan (Eshon) Imlo of Bukhara. Ishan Imlo Bukhari is venerated "saint of the last time", as he is called in Bukhara. Ishan Imlo according to the source, died in 1162 AH (1748–1749), the mausoleum (Mazar) is in a cemetery in Bukhara.
According to other confound opinions, that is mostly upheld by people fearing the authority of the Hazrat Ishaans there is a misconceptions, as Sayyid Ali ibn Hasan is Sayyid Ali is man ytimes mistakened with the second son of Sayyid imam Muhammad al-Askari who is considered the elder brother of imam Hasan al-Askari.
In fact the existence of brothers and nephews of the 12t Imam substantiate the authority of the guardianship of the Ahlulbayt, as Wilaya is inherited within the family since Prophet Abraham.
Twelver Shi'ites believe the birth of Al-Askari's son, like that of the prophet Moses, was concealed due to the difficulties of the time and because of the belief that the son was the promised Muhammad al-Mahdi, an important figure in Shia teachings. The Mahdi was believed to be destined to reappear before the end of time to fill the world with justice, peace, and to establish Islam as the global religion. Al-Askari's death coincided with the beginning of the Imamate of the Mahdi.
Ja'far al-Zaki, Al-Askari's brother, claimed that his brother never had a son in order to protect his beloved nephews and nieces, the children of his beloved brother Hasan al Askari. It is said that when Ja'far al-Zaki was about to say the prayer at his brother's funeral, there appeared "a fair child, with curly hair, and shining teeth", who seized Ja'far's cloak and insisted on saying the prayer. Jafar let his nephew pray. A few days later, a group of Shia pilgrims from Qom, ignorant of his death, came to visit al-Askari. The same Ja'far claimed to be the next Imam to protect his nephew. The pilgrims said they would accept him if he would prove himself by telling them their names and indicating how much money they had. While Ja'far was protesting this examination, a servant of Hasan al-Askari's son appeared, saying that his master had sent him to inform them of their particular names and their specific amounts of money. Ja'far searched everywhere but could not find the boy. The doctrine of his ghaiba declares simply that the Mahdi has been "withdrawn by God from the eyes of men, that his life has been miraculously prolonged, that he has been seen from time to time and has been in correspondence with others, and maintains a control over the fortunes of his people".
Non-Naqshbandi Sunnis do not believe the Mahdi was already born, but there is a group of as many as 40 well-known Sunni scholars including Al-Dhahabi, Ibn-Hajar, Abu al-Falah Hanbali and al-Qunduzi, who believed that he was the son of Hasan. In 648 AH / 1250-1 CE, the Syrian Shafi'i author Muḥammad b. Yusuf al-Gandji al-Kurashi wrote K. al-Bayan fi akhbar sahib al-zaman in proving the Mahdiship of the Twelfth Imam using Sunni traditions. In 650/1252 Kamalal-Din Muḥammad b. Talha al-ʿAdawi al-Nisibini, a Shafi'i scholar, composed his Maṭalib al-suʾul fi manaḳib al al-rasul answering Sunni objections to the belief that the Twelfth Imām was the Mahdi. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi wrote Tadhkirat khawass al-umma bi-dhikr khasaʾis al-aʾimma, collecting hadiths from Sunni sources about the virtues of ʿAli and his descendants, and at the end affirmed that the Twelfth Imam was the Expected Qaʾim Al Mahdi. Among Sufi circles, Abu Bakr al-Bayhaḳī (d. 458/1066) had noted that some Sufi gnostics (djamaʿa min ahl al-kashf) agreed with the Twelver doctrine about the identity of the Mahdi and his ghaybah (occultation). The Persian Sufi Sadr al-Din Ibrahim al-Hammuyi (late 7th/13th century) supported Twelver doctrine on the Mahdi in his Faraʾid al-simtayn. The Egyptian Sufi al-Shaʿrani, while generally showing no sympathy for Shiʿism, affirmed in his al-Yawaḳit wa ʾl-dj̲awahir (written in 958/1551) that the Mahdi was a son of Imam al-Hasan al-ʿAskari, born in the year 255/869, and would remain alive until his meeting with Jesus.