السلام عليكم يا فخر الاسلام يا امير المؤمنين يا سيدنا عمر الفاروق
Imāmah (Arabic: إِمَامَة) means "leadership" and is a concept in Sunni theology in veneration for the family of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his son in law Hazrat Imam Ali (kw).
Twelver Sunnis in contrast to Twelver Shia are also addressed as Naqshbandi, as Shah Naqshband is a descendant of the 11th Imam of Ahlulbayt.
which asserts that certain individuals from the lineage of the Islamic prophet Muhammad are to be accepted as leaders and guides of the ummah after the death of Muhammad. Imamah further says that Imams possess divine knowledge and authority (Ismah) as well as being part of the Ahl al-Bayt, the family of Muhammad. These Imams have the role of providing commentary and interpretation of the Quran as well as guidance.
The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, in the Twelver branch of Sunni Alevism. According to Twelver theology, the successors to Muhammad are infallible human beings, who rule justly over the community and maintain and interpret sharia and undertake the esoteric interpretation of the Quran. The words and deeds of Muhammad and the Imams guide the community. For this, the Imams must be free from error and sin and chosen by divine decree—nass—through the Prophet.
Followers of the Imamah believe that divine wisdom—'Aql—is the source of the souls of the Prophets and Imams and gives them esoteric knowledge—hikmah—and that their suffering is a means by which their devotees may acquire divine grace.
The Imam is not the recipient of divine revelation, but has a close relationship with God, who guides him, allowing the Imam in turn to guide others. The same applies to the representative of the 12th Imam on earth, the Hazer Imam.
The Imamat, or belief in the divine guide, is a fundamental belief in Shia Islam and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.
According to the Twelver Sunnis, an Imam of the Age is always the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law. Ali was the first Imam in this line and in the view of Twelver Sunnis the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by the male descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah. Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam, with the exception of Husayn ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan ibn Ali. The twelfth and final Imam is Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be alive and represented externally by the Hazer Imam.
The word "Imām" denotes a person who stands or walks "in front". For Sunni Islam, the word is commonly used to mean a person who leads the course of prayer in the mosque. It also means the head of a madhhab ("school of thought"). However, from the Shia point of view this is merely the basic understanding of the word in the Arabic language and, for its proper religious usage, the word "Imam" is applicable only to those members of the house of Muhammad designated as infallible by the preceding Imam.
In Sunni Islam
I heard the Prophet of Allah say 'Islam shall not cease to be glorious up to twelve Caliphs, every one of them being from the Quraish'". (And in a narration) "The affairs of men will not cease to decline so long as twelve men will rule over them, every one of them coming from Quraish. And in a narration: The religion will continue to be established till the hour comes as there are twelve Caliphs over them, everyone of them coming from the Quraish
The affairs of the people will continue to be conducted as long as they are governed by twelve men, he then added from Quraish
I will be followed by twelve Khalifas all will be Quraysh
History and expertise
The Shia further believe only these A'immah have the right to be Caliphs, meaning that all other caliphs, whether elected by consensus (Ijma) or not, are usurpers of the Caliphate as those were political positions not divine positions.
All Muslims believe that Muhammad had said: "To whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is his Mawla." This hadith has been narrated in different ways by many different sources in no less than 45 hadith books of both Sunni and Shia collections. This hadith has also been narrated by the collector of hadiths, al-Tirmidhi, 3713; as well as Ibn Maajah, 121 etc. The major point of conflict between the Sunni and the Shia is in the interpretation of the word 'Mawla'. For the Shia the word means 'Master' and has the same elevated significance as when the term had been used to address Muhammad himself during his lifetime. Thus, when Muhammad actually (by speech) and physically (by way of having his closest companions including Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman [the three future Caliphs who had preceded Ali as Caliph] publicly accept Ali as their Master by taking Ali's hand in both of theirs as token of their allegiance to Ali) transferred this title and manner of addressing Ali as the Mawla for all Muslims at Ghadiri Khum Oasis just a few months before his death, the people that came to look upon Ali as Muhammad's immediate successor even before Muhammad's death came to be known as the Shia. However, for Sunnis the word simply means the 'beloved' or the 'revered' and has no other significance at all.
According to many, Imamate is a universal authority over the religious and secular matters of the community as the successor of the prophet and in Shia theology it means the legitimate successor to the Islamic community who are just the family of the prophet (ahl al-Bayt). not because they are the prophet's family, but because they have the prerequisites of religious and political leadership. It is also stated that Imamate is under investigation from three perspectives: Islamic government, Islamic sciences and spiritual guidance.Others also state that the term Imamate reflects spiritual and sociopolitical leadership. Shia theology, philosophy and mysticism, politics as well as historical progression derives from the doctrine of Imamah.
Imamate of Imam al Askari
Shia believe that Hasan al-Askari gained the Imamate after the death of his father—by divine command, as well as by the decrees of the previous Imams—at the age of 22. During the seven years of his Imamate, Hasan al-Askari lived in dissimulation (taqiyah), without any social contact, as the Abbasid Caliphs were afraid of the increasing popularity of Shia Islam at the time. The Caliphs also came to know that the leaders among the Shia believed that the eleventh Imam would have a son who was the promised Mahdi. Due to these fears, the Caliphs of the time had decided to put an end to the Imamate of Shi'ism once and for all.
Under the rule of the Abbasid Caliphs
Hasan al-Askari lived almost his entire life under house arrest in Samarra and under the supervision of the Abbasid caliphs. He was not allowed to communicate with others and wore the Taqiyah (cap). Some say, however, that due to visits made on his traffic route, at the beginning of his imamate, he had a little freedom. According to Sachedina and Jassim M. Hussain, during his house arrest, al-Askari named a personal deputy to guide the Shia in religious thought and collect religious taxes (Khums, Zakat, etc.). He organized The institution of the deputyship (wikala). He criticized the rulers for appropriating the wealth of the nation and extorting the people under their rule by not communicating with or cooperating with the kings of his time. The state remained in a political crisis, as the Abbasid Caliphs were considered puppets of the Turks, who were seen as ruling through terrorism. After the death of al-Askari's father, Ali al-Hadi, the Caliph Al-Mu'tazz summoned him to Baghdad, where he was kept in prison during the short rule of the next Caliph, Al-Muhtadi. Most of his prison time, however, was during the reign of the succeeding Caliph, Al-Mu'tamid, who is known in Shia sources as the main oppressor of the Imam. The Imam's death has largely been attributed to poison administered by al-Mu'tamid. The al-Mu'tamid era coincided with the rebellion of the Alawites, and people allied to them, so al-Askari was released from prison, from 256 to 260 A.H. The news of his death was published in his home.
There was a large sect of Shia, the Waqifiyya, who believed that the Imamate stopped with the seventh Imam, Musa al-Kadhim. They were unwilling to approve the succession of the remaining five Imams. Also, Ja'far, the son of the tenth Imam, claimed to be Imam after the death of his brother, al-Askari, and was followed by a group of Shia. However, this group disbanded soon afterwards, as Ja'far himself gave up his claim. Except for Zaidiyyah and Isma'ilism, which continue to the present day, all other minority sects of the Shia were dissolved in a short period, except for the division made by Ibn Nusayr after the death of Al-Askari, which later became the Alawites.
The institution of Hazrat Ishaan, sometimes called Hazer Imamate is not to be confused with Imamat itself, which only lies in the hands of the 12th Imam until he reappears.
Hazrat Ishaan is thus a Viceroy of the 12th Imam on earth. The concept was present since Sayyid Ali Akbar, who was in light of this honor called Sultan and Amir. However the name Hazrat Ishaan was first used in relations to Khwaja Khawand Mahmud as a title for the Qutb of the time. The conceptualization of the title again is highlighted by his descendants.
The Astan of Hazrat Ishaan is thus an institution established by Sayyid Ali Akbar ibn Imam Hasan al Askari (as) and his descendants through Bahauddin Naqshband (ra), who are believed to stay in direct communication with the 12th Imam.
A synonyme for Hazrat Ishaan, meaning Presence of the 12th Imam is "Qutb", meaning cosmic axis or center of the universe under the 12th Imam.
The Raja´(reappereance) of the 12th Imam (ajtf) will be welcomed by a promised Hazer Imam, who is regarded as Qaim, who will be from the descendants of the family of Sayyid Mir Jan, based on the line of succession.
It is this Qaim that is confused with the "Mahdi" in Sunni scriptures. The Mahdi is no one else than the 12th Imam, who was already born, but the Qaim will be an eschatological figure who will establish a Caliphate in the name of the 12th Imam and welcome him in the Raja´.
Reserving the throne for his Uncle, the Qaim will make way for his uncle the 12th Imam and make him sit on the throne of global governance.
Today it is accepted by Malangan (Mystics) of the Naqshbandi Order that this eschatological Qaim will most probably be from the progeny of the current Hazrat Ishaan H.E. Prince Sayyid Raphael Dakik or his little brothers.
List of Hazrat Ishaans
1st Hazrat Ishaan
Shah Sayyid Khwaja Khawand Mahmud
7th generation grandson of Shah Bahauddin Naqshband
Prophecied successor of Shah Naqshband (Shah Naqshband was resurrected again and proclaimed his legitimacy)
Mughal Kingmaker and Oligarch
2nd Hazrat Ishaan
Amir Sayyid Mir Moinuddin Hadi Naqshband
3rd Hazrat Ishaan
Shahzada Sayyid Nizamuddin Naqshband
Paternal granson of the 2nd Hazrat Ishaan
Maternal grandson of Emperor Jahangir
4th Hazrat Ishaan
Shahzada Sayyid Nooruddin Naqshband
Son of the 3rd Hazrat Ishaan
Maternal grandson of Emperor Aurangzeb
5th Hazrat Ishaan
Shahzada Sayyid Kamaluddin Naqshband
Patron Martyr of Naqshbandi Sunni Islam
6th Hazrat Ishaan
Shahzada Sayyid Pir Mohyuddin Shah Naqshband
7th Hazrat Ishaan
Amir Kabir Mir Sayyid Hasan Naqshband bin Azimullah
Tribal leader of Afghan Sayyids
son in law of Sayyid Pir Mohyuddin Shah Naqshband
8th Hazrat Ishaan
Shah Sayyid Mir Jan bin Hasan
Promised successor of the 1st Hazrat Ishaan
Highest Hazrat Ishaan (Shah)
(The 1st Hazrat Ishaan was resurrected again and proclaimed his legitimacy)
9th Hazrat Ishaan
Shahzada Mir Sayyid Mahmud Agha Shah bin Hasan
Right hand of Shah Sayyid Mir Jan
Afghan and British Indian Oligarch
10th Hazrat Ishaan
Mufti Azam Sayyid Mir Fazlullah Agha bin Hasan
Afghan Chief Justice
Supreme Judge of the Emirate of Afghanistan
Teacher of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamit II
11th Hazrat Ishaan
General Sayyid Mir Muhammad Jan bin Fazlullah
Son of the 10th Hazrat Ishaan
Afghan General and Oligarch
12th Hazrat Ishaan
Aali Jinab Sayyid Mir Assadullah bin Muhammad Jan
Son and successor of the 11th Hazrat Ishaan
Afghan Pioneer of Accountancy
13th Hazrat Ishaan
Mir Sayyid Mustafa bin Assadullah
Oldest son of Mir Assadullah
Engineer and Architect
14th Hazrat Ishaan
Prince Sayyid Raphael bin Nargis bint Assadullah
Oldest grandson of Mir Assadullah
Afghan Royal, Lawyer and Lobbyist